Memory Game

Learn creating a Memory Game using Windows App SDK with this Tutorial

Memory Game shows how you can create a simple moon phase pairing game with emoji and with a toolkit from NuGet using the Windows App SDK.

Step 1

Follow Setup and Start on how to get Setup and Install what you need for Visual Studio 2022 and Windows App SDK.

In Windows 11 choose Start and then find or search for Visual Studio 2022 and then select it.
Visual Studio 2022
Once Visual Studio 2022 has started select Create a new project.
Create a new project
Then choose the Blank App, Packages (WinUI in Desktop) and then select Next.
Blank App, Packages (WinUI in Desktop)
After that in Configure your new project type in the Project name as MemoryGame, then select a Location and then select Create to start a new Solution.
Configure project

Step 2

Then in Visual Studio within Solution Explorer for the Solution, right click on the Project shown below the Solution and then select Manage NuGet Packages...

Manage NuGet Packages

Step 3

Then in the NuGet Package Manager from the Browse tab search for Comentsys.Toolkit.WindowsAppSdk and then select Comentsys.Toolkit.WindowsAppSdk by Comentsys as indicated and select Install

NuGet Package Manager Comentsys.Toolkit.WindowsAppSdk

This will add the package for Comentsys.Toolkit.WindowsAppSdk to your Project. If you get the Preview Changes screen saying Visual Studio is about to make changes to this solution. Click OK to proceed with the changes listed below. You can read the message and then select OK to Install the package.

Step 4

Then while still in the NuGet Package Manager from the Browse tab search for Comentsys.Assets.FluentEmoji and then select Comentsys.Assets.FluentEmoji by Comentsys as indicated and select Install

NuGet Package Manager Comentsys.Assets.FluentEmoji

This will add the package for Comentsys.Assets.FluentEmoji to your Project. If you get the Preview Changes screen saying Visual Studio is about to make changes to this solution. Click OK to proceed with the changes listed below. You can read the message and then select OK to Install the package, then you can close the tab for Nuget: MemoryGame by selecting the x next to it.

Step 5

Then in Visual Studio within Solution Explorer for the Solution, right click on the Project shown below the Solution and then select Add then New Item…

Add New Item

Step 6

Then in Add New Item from the C# Items list, select Code and then select Code File from the list next to this, then type in the name of Library.cs and then Click on Add.

Add New Code File

Step 7

You will now be in the View for the Code of Library.cs, within this type the following Code:


using Comentsys.Assets.FluentEmoji;
using Comentsys.Toolkit.WindowsAppSdk;
using Microsoft.UI.Xaml;
using Microsoft.UI.Xaml.Controls;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class Library
{
    private const string title = "Memory Game";
    private const int size = 4;
    private Dialog _dialog;
    private int _moves = 0;
    private int _row = 0;
    private int _column = 0;
    private int _clicks = 0;
    private int _firstId = 0;
    private int _secondId = 0;
    private Button _first;
    private Button _second;
    private readonly int[,] _board = new int[size, size];
    private readonly List<int> _matches = new();
    private static readonly Dictionary<int, FluentEmojiType> _options = new()
    {
            { 1, FluentEmojiType.NewMoon },
            { 2, FluentEmojiType.WaxingCrescentMoon },
            { 3, FluentEmojiType.FirstQuarterMoon },
            { 4, FluentEmojiType.WaxingGibbousMoon },
            { 5, FluentEmojiType.FullMoon },
            { 6, FluentEmojiType.WaningGibbousMoon },
            { 7, FluentEmojiType.LastQuarterMoon },
            { 8, FluentEmojiType.WaningCrescentMoon }
    };
    private readonly Random _random = new((int)DateTime.UtcNow.Ticks);

    // Choose, Asset, Match, NoMatch & Compare

    // Add

    // Layout

    // New

}                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
                                    

The Class that has been defined in so far Library.cs has using for the packages that were added of Comentsys.Assets.FluentEmoji and Comentsys.Toolkit.WindowsAppSdk amongst others needed. There are also some const and readonly values for parts of the game and to represent the layout including a Dictionary to represent the moon phases that will be paired up.

Step 8

Still in the Class for Library.cs after the Comment of // Choose, Asset, Match, NoMatch & Compare type the following Methods:


private List<int> Choose(int minimum, int maximum, int total) =>
    Enumerable.Range(minimum, maximum)
        .OrderBy(r => _random.Next(minimum, maximum))
            .Take(total).ToList();

private Viewbox Asset(int option) => new()
{
    Child = new Asset
    {
        AssetResource = FlatFluentEmoji
        .Get(_options[option])
    }
};

private void Match()
{
    _matches.Add(_firstId);
    _matches.Add(_secondId);
    if (_matches.Count == size * size)
        _dialog.Show($"Matched in {_moves} moves!");
}

private void NoMatch()
{
    if (_first != null)
        _first.Content = null;
    if (_second != null)
        _second.Content = null;
}

private async void Compare()
{
    await Task.Delay(TimeSpan.FromSeconds(1.5));
    if (_firstId == _secondId)
        Match();
    else
        NoMatch();
    _first = null;
    _second = null;
    _moves++;
    _firstId = 0;
    _secondId = 0;
    _clicks = 0;
}                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
                                    

Choose will use an enumerable to select a set of numbers that will be randomly chosen. Asset will be used to show the Emoji for the moon phases. Match will check to see if a pair has been selected and if the game is over, NoMatch will reset selected items if it isn't a pair and Compare is used to check for a pair.

Step 9

While still in the Class for Library.cs after the Comment of // Add type in the following Method:


private void Add(Grid grid, int row, int column)
{
    Button button = new()
    {
        Width = 75,
        Height = 75
    };
    button.Click += (object sender, RoutedEventArgs e) =>
    {
        button = (Button)sender;
        var row = (int)button.GetValue(Grid.RowProperty);
        var column = (int)button.GetValue(Grid.ColumnProperty);
        int option = _board[row, column];
        if (_clicks <= 1 && _matches.IndexOf(option) < 0)
        {
            // First Choice
            if (_row == 0 && _column == 0)
            {
                _clicks++;
                _firstId = option;
                _first = button;
                _first.Content = Asset(option);
                _row = row;
                _column = column;
            }
            // Second Choice
            else if (!(_row == row && _column == column))
            {
                _clicks++;
                _secondId = option;
                _second = button;
                _second.Content = Asset(option);
                Compare();
                _row = 0;
                _column = 0;
            }
        }
    };
    button.SetValue(Grid.ColumnProperty, column);
    button.SetValue(Grid.RowProperty, row);
    grid.Children.Add(button);
}                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                    

Add is used to create a Button with an Event Handler for Click which will use Asset to set the Content and then check when it is either the first choice or the second choice and see if this is a pair with Compare.

Step 10

While still in the Class for Library.cs after the Comment of // Layout type the following Method:


private void Layout(Grid grid)
{
    grid.Children.Clear();
    grid.RowDefinitions.Clear();
    grid.ColumnDefinitions.Clear();
    // Setup Grid
    for (int index = 0; index < size; index++)
    {
        grid.RowDefinitions.Add(new RowDefinition());
        grid.ColumnDefinitions.Add(new ColumnDefinition());
    }
    // Setup Board
    for (int row = 0; row < size; row++)
    {
        for (int column = 0; column < size; column++)
        {
            Add(grid, row, column);
        }
    }
}                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                    

Layout will use Add to create the layout for the game.

Step 11

While still in the Class for Library.cs after the Comment of // New type the following Method:


public void New(Grid grid)
{
    _dialog = new Dialog(grid.XamlRoot, title);
    _row = 0;
    _moves = 0;
    _column = 0;
    _clicks = 0;
    Layout(grid);
    int counter = 0;
    _matches.Clear();
    List<int> values = new();
    // Pairs : Random 1 - 8
    while (values.Count <= size * size)
    {
        List<int> numbers = Choose(1, size * 2, size * 2);
        for (int number = 0; number < size * 2; number++)
        {
            values.Add(numbers[number]);
        }
    }
    // Board : Random 1 - 16
    List<int> indices = Choose(1, size * size, size * size);
    // Setup Board
    for (int column = 0; column < size; column++)
    {
        for (int row = 0; row < size; row++)
        {
            _board[column, row] = values[indices[counter] - 1];
            counter++;
        }
    }
}                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                    

New will setup the Dialog along with initialising the values used in the game for the pairs and for the board itself by using Layout.

Step 12

Within Solution Explorer for the Solution double-click on MainWindow.xaml to see the XAML for the Main Window.
Solution Explorer MainWindow.xaml

Step 13

In the XAML for MainWindow.xaml there will be some XAML for a StackPanel, this should be Removed:


<StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal" 
HorizontalAlignment="Center" VerticalAlignment="Center">
    <Button x:Name="myButton" Click="myButton_Click">Click Me</Button>
</StackPanel>                               
                                    

Step 14

While still in the XAML for MainWindow.xaml above </Window>, type in the following XAML:


<Grid>
    <Viewbox>
        <Grid Margin="50" Name="Display" 
        HorizontalAlignment="Center" 
        VerticalAlignment="Center" Loaded="New"/>
    </Viewbox>
    <CommandBar VerticalAlignment="Bottom">
        <AppBarButton Icon="Page2" Label="New" Click="New"/>
    </CommandBar>
</Grid>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                    

This XAML contains a Grid with a Viewbox which will Scale a Grid. It has a Loaded event handler for New which is also shared by the AppBarButton.

Step 15

Within Solution Explorer for the Solution select the arrow next to MainWindow.xaml then double-click on MainWindow.xaml.cs to see the Code for the Main Window.
Solution Explorer MainWindow.xaml.cs

Step 16

In the Code for MainWindow.xaml.cs there be a Method of myButton_Click(...) this should be Removed by removing the following:


private void myButton_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
{
    myButton.Content = "Clicked";
}                                        
                                    

Step 17

Once myButton_Click(...) has been removed, within the Constructor of public MainWindow() { ... } and below the line of this.InitializeComponent(); type in the following Code:


private readonly Library _library = new();

private void New(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e) =>
    _library.New(Display);                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                    

Here an Instance of Library is created then below this is the Method of New that will be used with Event Handler from the XAML, this Method uses Arrow Syntax with the => for an expression body which is useful when a Method only has one line.

Step 18

That completes the Windows App SDK application. In Visual Studio 2022 from the Toolbar select MemoryGame (Package) to Start the application.
MemoryGame (Package)

Step 19

Once running you can then Click on any two Buttons to display a phase of the moon, you need to match the phases to make a pair then match all pairs to win or you can restart the game by selecting New.

Memory Game Running and Output

Step 20

To Exit the Windows App SDK application, select the Close button from the top right of the application as that concludes this Tutorial for Windows App SDK from tutorialr.com!
Close application